Change of Physical and Chemical Properties of Permafrost Steppe Soils of the Lena River Valley

Makarova M.P., Savvinov D.D., Timofeev A.G., Kovalsky D.V.

 

The changes of physical and chemical properties of the permafrost steppe soils in the valley of the Lena River, located in the suburban area of Yakutsk city are considered. These soils in their natural (virgin) condition are characterized by a relatively high potential fertility. However currently as a result of the long unsystematic use, as permanent pastures and plowed fields, the soils significantly lost their performance due to the deterioration of the basic physical and chemical properties (increase of specific gravity, reducing of humus, mobile forms of nutrients content, increasing the pH value etc.). To determine the physical and chemical properties of the soils samples from the layers 0­–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–40 cm were taken. The results of the study showed that in the areas of intensive zoogenic, anthropogenic and technogenic impact agrochemical parameters of the soils are changed to the worse. The pH values increase, total nitrogen and its moving forms contents reduce, as well as - mobile phosphorus, all this indicates a substantial degradation of total fertility of the soils. In such a critical situation almost the only way to restore the lost physical and chemical indicators of the degraded soils is the systematic application of organic and mineral fertilizers on the background of the surface treatment of the plow layer. And in case of a severe degradation of soil only using radical treatment with high doses of both organic and mineral fertilizers one can achieve positive results.

Key words: permafrost chernozem, permafrost meadow-chernozemsoils, permafrost steppe soils, soil degradation, mobile forms of nutrients, humus, specific gravity of soil.

Science and Education, 2015, No.2, pp.140-145